Understanding International Treaties

Understanding International Treaties
International Agreement
International treaties are agreements held by subjects of international law and aim to produce certain legal consequences. Examples of international agreements are agreements made by countries with other countries, countries with international organizations, international organizations with other international organizations, and the Holy See with countries.

International treaties according to experts
The 1969 Vienna Convention
International treaties are agreements entered into by two or more countries that aim to have certain legal consequences.

1986 Vienna Convention
International agreements as international agreements governed by international law and signed in written form between one or more countries and between one or more international organizations, international organizations.

Law No. 37 of 1999 concerning Foreign Relations
International agreements are agreements in any form and designation governed by international law and made in writing by the government of Indonesia with one or more countries, international organizations or other international legal subjects, as well as giving rise to rights and obligations to the government of Indonesia which are public law.

UU no. 24 of 2000 concerning International Treaties
international agreement is an agreement in the form and name specified in international law which is made in writing and gives rise to rights and obligations in the field of public law.

International treaties are agreements between countries that give rise to rights and obligations among the parties to the agreement.

B. Schwarzenberger
International treaties are agreements between international legal subjects that give rise to binding obligations in international law, which can be bilateral or multilateral. The legal subjects in question are international institutions and countries.

Dr. Muchtar Kusumaatmaja, S.H. LLM
International treaties are agreements held between nations that aim to create certain consequences.
International cooperation is legally manifested in the form of international treaties, namely countries in carrying out relations or cooperation to make international agreements. Based on some of these definitions, it is concluded that international treaties are agreements made by subjects of international law and have the purpose of giving birth to certain legal consequences.
International treaties or often referred to as international treaties are international agreements governed by international relations and signed in written form. Examples of international treaties include inter-state or more, international organizations or more, and international organizations.
An international agreement is essentially a goal or agreement. The form of international agreements carried out between nations and international organizations does not have to be in written form. In this international agreement there is a law governing the agreement. In international treaties there are terms subject and object. The subject of international agreements is all subjects of international law, especially countries and international organizations. Whereas what is meant by the object of international law are all interests that concern the life of the international community, especially economic, social, political and cultural interests.

Various International Treaties
International agreements as a formal source of international law can be classified as follows.
Based on the contents
a) Political aspects, such as defense pacts and facts of peace.
b) Economic aspects, such as economic assistance and financial assistance.
c) Legal compliance
d) In terms of area boundaries
e) In terms of health.

Based on the Process / Manufacturing Stages
Significant agreements are made through negotiation, signing and ratification processes.
A simple agreement is made through two stages, namely negotiation and signing.
Indonesian-Chinese citizenship status, extradition.
Territorial sea, land boundary.
Quarantine problems, prevention of AIDS epidemics

The Systematic Writing of Proposal Activities

The systematic writing of proposal activities include:
Background of activities
Name of activity
The purpose of the activity
Activity target
Benefits of activities
Type of activity
Time and place of activity
schedule of activities
Implementing and working organization
Activity funding budget
Proposal Language Rules
The proposal's linguistic rules are:

Using scientific terms, both related to the activities to be carried out or related to the scientific field.
Use action verbs to state the steps of an activity or research method.
Use words that define definitions, as they are, that is, that is, are.
Use words that contain detailed meanings, such as first, second, other than that.
Use words that are will-like, as will be, expected.
Use denotative or meaningful words. This is very important to avoid misunderstandings between the proposer and the recipient of the proposal.
Proposal Characteristics:
Proposals are made to summarize the activities that will be carried out
As the first notification of an activity
Contains objectives, background of the event
Surely the proposal is in the form of sheets of notice that have been bound which will be submitted to the owner of the event
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Things that must be considered in making a proposal:
The preparation of the proposal should appoint a person or several people who are experts in preparing the proposal, preferably those who are related to the activities carried out.
The proposal compiler prepares the materials and information needed, in the form of materials from the whole committee
Prepare a draft proposal in a systematic, attractive, and realistic manner
Proposals are discussed in deliberation forums to be discussed, revised and approved.
Proposed proposals have been made to be used as they should.
Proposals are reproduced and distributed to the intended parties, both internal and external
Proposal Structure:
The Following Is The Proposal Structure:

An activity proposal must have a cover using an activity logo or be able to use an organization logo. Covered includes the written name of the activity to be carried out. in the baah section written the implementing agency.

In writing background, you must advise you. Not as close as the background is written but the background starts with general matters and special issues.

Name of activity
The name of the activity is the name that will be carried out on the activity.

The theme of the activity is written in accordance with the theme agreed with the forum or themes that have been available previously.

The purpose of the activity is the target for the activity to be carried out and includes the reasons for this activity.

Types of Activities / Event Activities
Type of activity or event to be carried out. All activity models must be written down because the agency will look at the number of planned activities. Every activity must be explained its purpose and purpose.

Promotion tool
Promotional tools are a benefit of sponsors. Promotional means of feeling from banners, clothing, pamphlets, browsures, banners, audio and Count of percent sponsorship. The percent contributed by the sponsor determines the size of the sponsor's logo.

Budget Efficiency
Budgetary efficiency is the quantity of the total allocation of funds to be used. written in detail with the price. Ranging from equipment, administration, consumption, trophies, placards, stage, sound and others. Budget estimation is an important issue because the main thing examined by the agency is the Budget.

The closing is a thank you and an apology to the agency. Signatures and stamps must be available because the validity of the proposal is available for signatures and stamps.

Organizational Structure
The composition of the committee must be available because of the sponsors' ability to use the clothes to use the committee structure.

Types of Proposals

Types of Proposals
As for the types of proposals In general, proposals are divided into 4 types including the following:
Business proposal
Is a proposal that is related to the world of business or business, can also be related to business groups or individuals. Examples such as proposals for the establishment of business entities, places of business and others.

Project Proposal
A proposal that has to do with the world of work, generally containing a series of plans in business or commercial. For example, such as a proposal for an office development project.

Research proposal
It is a proposal that is often used in academics such as research for thesis, and so on. Usually this type of proposal is used to submit a research activity to be carried out.

Activity Proposal
This type of proposal is often used in the community, because it is a proposal to submit a plan of activities both individual and individual activities, such as proposals to hold celebrations, competitions and others.

Type of Proposal Based on Its Form
Types of proposals based on the form are divided into 3 types including:

Formal Proposal
This proposal is very complete and consists of three parts including the introduction, content, and cover, with the following explanation:

The introduction consists of the cover and title page, preface, summary, table of contents, and endorsement or application.
The contents section consists of background problems, problem boundaries, objectives, basic assumptions or thoughts, research methodology, facilities, personalias advantages, time losses, budget funds in others.
Whereas the closing part consists of bibliography, attachments and others.
Non-formal Proposal
This proposal is not like a complete formal proposal, usually submitted only in the form of letters. Usually it always contains things like problems, suggestions, problem solving and endorsements or requests.

Semi-formal Proposal
Almost the same as non-formal proposals because the contents are not complete or do not meet the formal proposal requirements.

Proposal Elements
The following are the elements of the proposal in general and are accompanied by a brief explanation:

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In this element, the gap between expectations and reality is presented, both theoretical and practical gaps that lay behind the problem.

Formulation of the problem
In this element expresses explicitly in the form of questions to which the answers are sought.

Research purposes
In this case the stated goals or objectives to be achieved.

In the hypothesis put forward a temporary answer to the research problem so that the relationship between the problem and the answer is clearer.

Research Assumptions
Research assumptions are basic assumptions about things that are used as the basis for thinking and acting.

Benefits of research
In this element contains the reason for the feasibility of the problem under study.

Pour Scope
Literature review
Operational definition
Systematics of Proposal Writing
The research proposals include:

Research proposal
The writing system is as follows:

Scope of problem
Formulation of the problem
Research purposes
Benefits of research
Literature review
Research methods
Object of research
Method of collecting data
Data analysis method
Expected results
Activity Proposal

Proposal Material

Proposal Material
Definition of Proposal
What is meant by a proposal is writing written by the writer with the intention to explain the plan and purpose of an activity to the readers, so that they get an understanding of the purpose of the activity in more clear and detailed manner. So with a proposal it is expected to provide clear information to the readers, so they understand the purpose and purpose of the proposal.
In general, a proposal is a program or plan for an activity which is only a proposal, it can also be said that the proposal is a written proposal to carry out an activity aimed at the parties related to the activity.

Definition of Proposal According to Experts
The word proposal itself comes from the English "to propose" which means to submit. The following is the definition of the proposal in the opinion of experts as follows:

According to the Dictionary
proposal means a plan as outlined in the form of a work plan.

According to Rieefky
proposal is a form of activity design that is made in formal and standard form.

According to Hasnun Anwar (2004: 73)
A proposal is a plan prepared for a particular activity.

According to Jay (2006: 1)
The proposal is a standard management tool so that management can function efficiently.

According to Hadi
proposal is a structured proposal for the agenda of business cooperation between institutions, companies, proposed activities to solve problems.

According to Keraf (2001: 302)
proposal is a suggestion or request to someone or an agency to do or do a job.

Based on the opinions of the experts above, it can be concluded that the proposal is a plan of activities or work that is arranged systematically and in detail according to standards by a person or group of researchers to be submitted to the desired parties in obtaining approval or assistance in their research.

Requirements for Compiling Proposals
As for preparing a proposal, it must meet the following requirements:
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Must have a structure and logic that is very clear and easy to understand.
The results of these activities must be structured.
The formulation of the types of activities carried out must be written in detail and must be really workable.
If there is a funding budget needed, then the budget of the funds needed must be realistic with the activity.

Purpose of the Proposal
The purpose of making or writing a proposal are:
To get financial assistance
To get support
To get permission

Proposal Function
The functions of a proposal are compiled, including the following:
To conduct research that has to do with social, cultural, economic and others.
Can be used to apply to set up a business.
Can also be used to submit tenders from various institutions.
Can be used to hold events events such as celebrations, seminars, training, competitions and others.
Benefits of Proposal
Be a plan that directs the committee in carrying out these activities.
Explain indirectly to those who want to know the activity.
To convince donors / sponsors that they provide material and financial support in realizing planned activities.

Sources of Business Law

Sources of Business Law
The main sources of business law (1338 paragraph 1 of the Civil Code) are:
The principle of contract (agreement) itself becomes the main source of law, where each party is bound to submit to the agreed contract. (contracts made are the same as laws),
The principle of freedom of contract, whereby the parties are free to make and determine the contents of the contract they have agreed to.
Sources of General Business Law
Civil Law (Civil Code)
Commercial Law (KUHDagang)
Public Law (Criminal Economy / Criminal Code)
Legislation outside the Civil Code, Criminal Code, Criminal Code
Sources of Business Law According to Expert Munir Fuady
Legislation, namely applicable legal regulations, such as: Laws, Government Regulations, and so on.
Agreement, which is an agreement made by the parties in a business transaction. There is also an opinion which states that the agreement or contract applies as a law against the parties who made it.
The treaty, namely the provisions in relations and international law, both in the form of an agreement between the leaders of countries in the world, regulations in international law, guidelines made by world institutions, and so forth that are enforced in Indonesia.
Jurisprudence, which is a legal decision which is usually used as a guideline in formulating or being considered in the drafting of regulations or subsequent legal decisions.
Habits, which are habits that are carried out by business people in general.
Doctrine, i.e. expert opinions or legal experts related to business law. Doctrine is usually called the opinion of legal scholars.
Civil Law (Civil Code), such as contract law (contract), material rights, as a source of business.
Public Law (Criminal Economy / Business), for example economic / business crimes: Smuggling, illegal logging, corruption, etc.
Commercial Law (KUH Trade), for example bookkeeping obligations, partnership companies (Firms, CVs), insurance, transportation, securities, intermediary traders, agents / distributors, etc.).
Legislation outside the Civil Code and the Commercial Code, for example bankruptcy, consumer protection, antitrust / unfair competition, investment (PMA / PMDN), capital markets (going public), limited liability companies, liquidation, acquisitions, mergers, financing, property rights intellectual property (copyright, trademark, patent), business dispute resolution / arbitration, international trade (WTO).

Principles of Business Law
Principle of Autonomy
Autonomous business people are fully aware of what is their duty in the business world. He will realize by not just following the norms and moral values, but also doing something because he knows and realizes that it is good, because everything has been thought out and carefully considered.

The Principle of Honesty
Business will not last long if there is no honesty, because honesty is the main capital to gain the trust of its business partners, whether in the form of commercial, material, or moral trust.

Principle of Justice
This principle requires that everyone be treated equally in accordance with fair rules and criteria that are rationally objective and accountable. Justice means there are no parties who suffer rights and interests.

The Principle of Mutual Benefit
This principle demands that all parties strive to benefit each other. In the business world, this principle requires that business competition must give rise to a win-win situation.

Principle of Moral Integrity
This principle suggests that business should be carried out while maintaining the good name and good name of the company.

Principle of Business Law
In business practice the source of the contract covers two main aspects:
The contract aspect (agreement) itself, which is the main legal source, where each party is bound to submit to the contract that has been agreed upon;
The freedom of contract aspect, in which the parties are free to make and determine the contents of the contract they have agreed upon.
Business law is the rules that govern business activities so that business is run fairly.

Examples of Business Law
corporate law (PT, CV, Firma),
capital market,
PMA / PMDN investment,
debt guarantees,
labor / labor law,
intellectual property rights,
legal agreement (sale and purchase / trade transaction),
banking law,
transportation law,
investment law,
technology law,
consumer protection,
antitrust law,
business dispute resolution,
international trade / WTO,
bookkeeping obligations.
In business activities, law is clearly needed in the interests of the Parties in order to realize the character and behavior of business activities in a fair, reasonable, healthy and dynamic business (guaranteed by legal certainty).

Business Law Material

Business Law Material
Business Law: Definition, Scope, Principles, Examples, and Functions - Basically law is created through power, but the legal content must regulate the balance between the interests of power and the interests of the people (people) who have sovereignty. Therefore the law was created not for power (Thomas Hobbes) but for the benefit of the development of society (Von Savigni).
The nature and function of law in a process must be reality, responsive / anticipatory and democratic. In social reality, law is often left behind with the development of society but that does not mean that law enforcement is stopped, because the law must remain upright even if the sky will collapse.

Understanding of Business Law
Business Law is written or unwritten norms or rules governing the interests of Business Law divided into several fields, including:

Business law in economics
Commercial law
  Insurance Law
  Investment Law
Business Law in finance
Banking law
Capital Market Law
Business Law in the field of services
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are rights granted to people for the results of their ideas. Usually these exclusive rights are granted for the use of the mind of the creator within a certain period of time. These thoughts can be realized in writing, artistic creations, symbols, naming, images, and designs used in commercial activities.

Intellectual Property Rights Classification:
Copyright (copyright), namely the exclusive rights granted by the state to the creator of a work (for example works of art to announce, reproduce, or give permission for others to reproduce their copy without reducing the author's own rights)
Industrial Property Right, namely the right to regulate everything concerning industrial property, especially those regulating legal protection.
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Definition of business law in general
are written regulations made by the government with a view to regulating, supervising and protecting all business activities, including industrial activities, trade and service implementation as well as all matters relating to financial activities and other business activities.

Basic Business Law
KUHD LAW (1848-Ind).
Regulation of trade sector outside codification.
Business Law Function
function of business law according to Amirizal (1996: 9) viz
As a useful source of information for business practitioners,
To understand their rights and obligations in business practice,
In order to realize the character and behavior of business activities that are fair, reasonable, healthy and dynamic (guaranteed by legal certainty).

Scope of Business Law
Business contract
Business Entity Forms (PT, CV, Firma)
The company went public and capital markets
Buying and selling company
Investment / investment (PAM / PMDN)
Bankruptcy and liquidation
Mergers, consolidations and acquisitions
Credit and financing
Debt collateral
Marketable securities
Employment / labor
Intellectual Property Rights, i.e. Patent Rights (Law No. 14 of 2001, Trademark Rights No. 15 of 2001, Copyright (Law No. 1 of 19 of 2002), Protection of Plant Varieties (Law No. 29 of 2000), Trade Secrets (Law No. 30 of 2000), Industrial Design, (Law No. 31 of 2000), and Layout Design of Integrated Circuits (Law No. 32 of 2000).
Prohibition of monopoly and unfair business competition
Consumer protection (Law No.8 / 1999)
Agency and distribution
Insurance (Law No. 2/1992)
Business dispute resolution
International business
Transportation law (darts, sea, air)
Technology Transfer - it needs protection and guarantee of legal certainty for technology owners and technology users such as the form and method of transferring foreign technology into the country.
Industrial / processing industry law.
Law Activities of multinational companies (export - inport)
Law of Mining Activities
Banking Law (Law No. 10/1998) and securities
Law Real estate / housing / buildings
Law International agreements / international trade.
Money Laundering Law (Law No. 15 of 2002)
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Characteristics of Effective Sentence in General

Characteristics of Effective Sentence in General
In writing found the use of words and groups of words that actually have the same meaning. In this case the group of words is a long form, while the word is a short or short form.

We conduct street children's research in Jakarta. (Long form)
We research street children in Jakarta. (Concise form)
Mr. Sanusi always gives advice to his children. (Long form)
Mr. Sanusi always advises his children. (Concise form)
Students hold discussions doing assignments from lecturers. (Long form)
Students discuss work on assignments from lecturers. (Concise form)

Characteristics of Effective Sentence in General:
Has an important element or principal, at least SP elements.
Obey the applicable spelling rules.
Use the right diction.
Using the equivalent of the structure of language and the logical and systematic way of thinking.
Using the alignment of the language forms used.
Emphasizing the main idea.
Refers to the effectiveness of using words.
Using variations of sentence structure.

Terms of Effective Sentences
The terms of an effective sentence are as follows:
Accurately represent the thoughts of the speaker or author.
Expressing the exact same understanding between the mind of the listener or reader with what the reader or writer thinks.
Easily understood by listeners or readers.
Does not cause errors in interpreting the intent of the author.
Convey the author's thoughts to the reader or listener appropriately.
Systematic and not wordy.

Structure of Effective Sentences
The structure of effective sentences must be correct. That sentence must have a unity of form, because it is the unity of form that makes a unity of meaning. Sentences that are structurally correct certainly have both a unity of form and a unity of meaning. On the other hand, sentences whose structure is damaged or chaotic, do not represent any unity and are a false statement.
So, effective sentences always have a clear structure or form. Every element contained in it (which generally consists of words) must occupy a clear position in relation to each other. The words must be sorted according to the rules that have been accustomed. Must not deviate, even more conflicting. Any deviation will usually cause abnormalities that are not acceptable to the language user community. For example, you will say I wrote a letter for papa. The effect will be very different, if said:
Make Papa write my letter.
The letter I wrote to Papa.
Get me a letter for Papa.
My dad wrote me a letter.
I am Papa for writing.
Make Papa the letter I write.
Even though the words used in the sentence are the same, there is an error. The error occurred because the words (as sentence elements) had unclear functions. The relationship of one word to another is unclear. The words are also not sorted according to what has been determined by the language user.
This is usually the result of deviations from the structural habits of language use in general. The next result is chaos of understanding. So that this does not happen, the language user always tries to obey the laws that have been familiarized. and adhere to the preparation of effective sentences as follows:

Use of Words That Have Changed Meanings:
The use of words that experience changes in meaning in the development of their use often changes meaning. These changes often occur due to shifts in connotation, usage period, distance and others. But what is clear, these changes are various, namely: narrow, broad, ameliorative, authoritative, and associate. For more details, see the explanation below:

Types of changes in meaning:
Narrow / specialization
The word that is classified as a change in meaning is a word that was used in the beginning for a variety of general uses, but its use is currently limited to one situation.
Literature used to be used for the understanding of writing in a broad or general sense, whereas now it is only meant by writing that smells of art. Likewise the word bachelor (once a smart, high-level person, now means "college graduate").

Widen / generalize
The use of this word is the opposite of narrowed understanding.
The farmer used to be someone who worked and depended on his life to work on the fields, but now the word is used for broader circumstances. The use of the understanding of fish farmers, fish farmers, catfish farmers is proof that the word farmers extends its use.

Amelioration (Elevation of Meaning)
Elevation of meaning is the change in meaning which results in the new meaning being perceived to be higher / respectful / refined / good in value, than the old meaning.